Stay hungry,Stay foolish

0%

计算机存储/网络传输中单位换算1000还是1024

简写

ISQ - International System of Quantities 国际量制。以长度、质量、时间、电流、热力学温度、物质的量和发光强度七个基本量为基础的量制

SI - International System of Units 国际单位制造。由国际计量大会(CGPM)批准采用的基于国际量制的单位制,包括单位名称和符号、词头名称和符号及其使用规则。

SI建立在ISQ的7个基本量的基础上

IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission 国际电工委员会

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers 电气与电子工程师协会

1000 1024

之所以会有这个问题,是因为不同硬件(或厂商)沿用了不同的标准,例如硬盘制造厂商使用1000(这也是大多数计算机设备中硬件使用的前缀),而操作系统或应用程序使用1024

这里面牵扯到两个标准:

  • 10进制的SI/ISQ
    • 10的3次方 1000
  • 2进制的IEC/IEEE
    • 2的10次方 1024
    • 词头 kibi- mebi- gibi- tebi- pebi- exbi-

bit = b = 比特

byte = B = 字节

8b = 1B

1000B = 1KB

1024B = 1KiB

1
Most computer hardware uses SI prefixes[defn. 1] to state capacity and define other performance parameters such as data rate. Main and cache memories are notable exceptions.

大多数计算机硬件使用的SI前缀(1000),Main and cache memories除外

1
Some operating systems and other software continue to use the customary binary prefixes in displays of memory, disk storage capacity, and file size, but SI prefixes[defn. 1] in other areas such as network communication speeds and processor speeds.

一些操作系统沿用2进制显示内存、磁盘、文件的大小; 网络传输/CPU速度等其它可都认为使用的10进制前缀

如需严格的单位换算,要区分好b B KB KiB

Operating systems

1
2
3
4
5
6
Prior to the release of Macintosh System Software (1984), file sizes were typically reported by the operating system without any prefixes.[citation needed] Today, most operating systems report file sizes with prefixes.

The Linux kernel uses binary prefixes when booting up.[91][92] However, many Unix-like system utilities, such as the ls command, use powers of 1024 indicated as K/M (customary binary prefixes) if called with the ‘‘-h’’ option or give the exact value in bytes otherwise. The GNU versions will also use powers of 10 indicated with k/M if called with the ‘‘--si’’ option.
The Ubuntu Linux distribution uses the IEC prefixes for base-2 numbers as of the 10.10 release.[93][94]
Microsoft Windows reports file sizes and disk device capacities using the customary binary prefixes or, in a "Properties" dialog, using the exact value in bytes.
Since Mac OS X Snow Leopard, (version 10.6), Apple's Mac OS X reports sizes using SI decimal prefixes (1 MB = 1000000 bytes).[95][96]

更多参考

wiki Binary_prefix
wiki Data-rate units
《国际计量学词汇— 基础和通用概念及相关术语》